Thyroid-related diseases are quite common all over the world and their cases are increasing continuously. The disease can be kept under control by taking medicines and keeping the lifestyle right, but doctors say that five percent of thyroid disorders can prove to be dangerous. It can also lead to thyroid cancer. The most common of these is papillary carcinoma of the thyroid. Also included is medullary carcinoma.
Dr. Akshat Malik, Head and Neck Oncosurgeon, Max Superspecialty Hospital, Saket, explains that thyroid cancer is common in women and is seen more in the age group of 40-50 years. Varies according to the type of cancer. Cancer of papillary carcinoma may be due to childhood exposure, family history of thyroid cancer, and some genetic factors, medullary carcinoma cancer may be familial in 25% of cases. In such cases, it may result from MEN IIa and MEN IIb-like syndromes. In these cases, specific genetic mutations are present which are passed on in the family.
These are the symptoms of thyroid
According to Dr. Akshat, thyroid cancer usually presents as a swelling of the neck. Its symptoms include weight gain, loss of appetite, and decreased sweating. A family history of thyroid cancer or inflammation may be present. There may be a history of exposure to radiation or radiotherapy in childhood. Sometimes, over a long period, the swelling of the thyroid starts increasing rapidly in size.
These are the methods of investigation
Thyroid function tests are done to check the thyroid. These include T3, T4, and TSH. Ultrasonography examination of the neck is essential. With its help, the extent and nature of the inflammation are noted. It also helps to identify lymph node enlargement or the presence of multiple small nodules in the thyroid itself. Fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) is performed for thyroid inflammation. The slides prepared through this procedure are viewed under a microscope to assess what types of cancer cells are present.
The treatment of thyroid cancer depends on various factors. These include age, gender, size of the lesion, and the presence of lymph node metastasis or distant metastasis. Surgery can be done in most cases. In surgical excision of the thyroid gland,hemithyroidectomyy or total thyroidectomy can be performed. In hemithyroidectomy, only half of the gland in the affected area is removed. Whereas, in thyroidectomy, the entire thyroid gland is removed.